Using transmission electron microscopy, we compared the ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampus and
the parietal cortex in the non-exposed group and the irradiation group. In the non-exposed rats, the
neurons were continuous with abundant, tightly packed neuroglial profiles. The neurons showed a clear
boundary and BBB integrity of the structure. However, the nerve fibers of the irradiation group showed
numerous scant and empty areas with severe edema around the blood vessels and neurons, and the neuronal
boundary was not clear and was wrinkled and dark in morphology. In the 28-day irradiated group, the
organelles in the neurons appeared swollen, had disappeared, and cytoplasmic vacuolization was
A total of 108 male Sprague- Dawley rats were exposed to a 900 MHz: HO-1 immunopositive cells were widely distributed in the brains of rats exposed to EMF for 28 days. After exposure to EMF for 14 and 28 days, the albumin had diffused into the neuropil between the cell bodies, surrounding the neurons in rats. Scattered neurons with positive albumin staining were distributed in the hippocampus and cortex In addition, albumin uptake occurred more frequently in the cortex and hippocampal regions of rats in the EMF28d group than in the sham-irradiated rats and EMF14d group. (Tang et al.,2015). Exposure to EMF 480 for 28 days induced the expression of mkp-1, which switched off MAPK signal transduction via ERK dephosphorylation. the surviving pathway of mkp-1/ERK and found an up-regulation of mkp-1 protein occurs at 28 days after exposure to EMF but not at 14 days. We detected dephosphorylation of ERK in the rats at 28 days after exposure to EMF, and no difference between the non-exposed group and EMF 14d group was observed.
Among the affected pathways, the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway was found, with a transient phosphorylation of hsp27 as a result of the mobile phone exposure. This generated the hypothesis that the mobile-phone induced hsp27-activation might stabilize stress fibers and in this way cause an increase in the BBB permeability.